Analysis of al-Biruni’s Contribution to Paleontology, Sedimentology and Mineralogy


  • Hifdzi Zaim Zamri Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
  • Roziah Sidik @ Mat Sidek Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
  • Wan Nasyrudin Wan Abdullah Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
  • Habibah Jamil Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia


Al-Biruni, Geology, History of Science, Islamic Civilization, Golden Age of Islam


Abu Raihan Muhammad Bin Ahmad or better known as al-Biruni is a renowned polymath Islamic scholar. His contribution towards the development of science was so profound. Unfortunately, his contribution is not well known in the history of the development of geological studies as compared to the European geologist such as Leonardo da Vinci, who some considered the first known geologist of all time. The focus of this study is to analyze al-Biruni’s contribution in the development of geological studies especially towards the modern understanding in the field of geology. The approach that has been used in this study is through qualitative studies by analyzing research that have been done in the past. Results of this study shows the contribution of al-Biruni in his findings that are much aligned with modern understanding towards geology particularly in paleontology, sedimentology and mineralogy. This study also concludes that al-Biruni is an Islamic polymath scholar in the 10th century and has preceded later European geologist in developing and making an impact towards the understanding of geology today.